Suppose we are asked to find the sum of two numbers, say 3 and 4. The sum of 3 and 4 is denoted by 3 + 4. Exactly in the same way, the sum of the literal x and a number 8 is denoted by x + 8 and is read ‘x plus 8’, which can also be read as ‘8 more than x,’ or ‘increase x by 8’.

Similarly, y more than a literal x is written as x + y. We can also read x + y as the sum of x and y.

(x + y) + z means that the sum of literals x and y is added to the literal z whereas x + ( y + z) means that the literal x is added to the sum of literals y and z.

Since literals are used to represent numbers. Therefore, addition of variables obeys all properties of addition of numbers. Here, we list the properties of addition of variables.

a + b = b + a

(a + b) + c = a + (b + c)

a + 0 = a = 0 + a, where 0 is known as additive identity

(i) The sum of y and 2.

(ii) 4 more than a number y.

(iii) x added to 8.

(iv) Increase x by 5

(v) The sum of x and 6 added to z

(vi) y added to the sum of z and 4

(vii) The sum of a and b

(viii) The sum of c and 4

(ix) r added to 7

(x) Increase p added 9

• Addition of Literals

• Subtraction of Literals

• Multiplication of Literals

• Division of Literals

• Constants and Variables

• Coefficient