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Math Dictionary a

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A
AA triangle similarity : If there exists a one-to-one correspondence between the vertices of two triangles such that two angles of one triangle are congruent to the corresponding two angles of the second triangle, then the two triangles are similar.

AAS triangle congruence : If there exists a one-to-one correspondence between the vertices of two triangles such that two angles and the side opposite one of them in one triangle are congruent to the corresponding parts of the second triangle, then two triangles are congruent.

ASA triangle congruence: If there exists a one-to-one correspondence between the vertices of two triangles such that two angles and the included side of one triangle are congruent to the corresponding parts of the second triangle, then two triangles are congruent.

Abscissa : The horizontal or x-coordinate of a two-dimensional coordinate system.

Absolute value The distance from 0 to a number n on a number line. The absolute value of a number n is indicated by |n| .

Acute angle : An angle whose measure is greater than 0° and less than 90°.

Acute triangle : A triangle that contains three acute angles.

Additive property of equality : : If a, b , and c are real numbers such that a =b, then a+c =b+c .

Adjacent angles : Two coplanar angles that share a common vertex and a common side but have no common interior points.

Adjacent sides : Two sides of any polygon that share a common vertex.

Algebraic representation : The use of an equation or algebraic expression to model a mathematical relationship.Solving equation is called Algebra problems.

Algorithm : a defined series of steps for carrying out a computation or process.

Alternate interior angles Any two nonadjacent angles that lie on opposite sides of a transversal and that are interior to the lines.

Altitude :
Of a cone : A line segment drawn from the vertex of the cone perpendicular to the plane containing its base.
Of a cylinder : A line segment drawn from any point on one base of a cylinder perpendicular to the plane containing its other base.
Of a prism : A line segment drawn from any point of one base of the prism perpendicular to the plane containing its other base.
Of a pyramid : A line segment drawn from the vertex of the pyramid perpendicular to the plane containing its base.
Of a trapezoid : A line segment drawn from any point on one base of the trapezoid perpendicular to the other base.
Of a triangle: A line segment drawn from any vertex of the triangle perpendicular to the line containing its opposite side.

Analytical geometry : An approach to geometry in which the points of a figure are represented by coordinates on the Cartesian plane and algebraic methods of reasoning are used to study the figure.

Analytical geometric proof : A proof in geometry that employs the coordinate system and algebraic reasoning.

Analytical representation of a transformation : The functional notation of a transformation using analytical equations.

Analyze : to examine methodically by separating into parts and studying their relationships.

Angle : A geometric figure formed by two rays that have a common endpoint.

Angle addition postulate : If ∠ABC and ∠CBD are adjacent angles then ∠ABD =∠ABC+∠CBD.

Angle bisector : A ray that divides an angle into two adjacent congruent angles.

Angle measure The number of degrees or radians in an angle.

Antecedent The “if" part of a conditional (if…, then…) statement. (See hypothesis.)

Apothem : A line segment drawn from the center of a regular polygon perpendicular to a side of the polygon.

Arc length The distance on the circumference of a circle from one endpoint of an arc to the other endpoint, measured along the arc.

Arc measure : The measure of an arc of the circle in degrees or radians; a unique real number between 0 degrees and 360 degrees or between zero and 2π radians.

Arc of a circle : See major arc, minor arc.

Area of a polygon : The unique real number assigned to any polygon which indicates the number of non-overlapping square units contained in the polygon’s interior.

Axiom : A statement that is accepted without proof.

Axis of symmetry : A line that divides a plane figure into two congruent reflected halves; Any line through a figure such that a point on one side of the line is the same distance to the axis as its corresponding point on the other side.


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