For solving such a problems we have to consider the following rules :

If A, B and C are three finite sets then :

1) n ( A ∪ B ∪ C ) =

n(A) + n(B) + n(C) – n ( A ∩ B ) – n(B ∩ C) – n (A ∩ C) + n( A ∩ B ∩ C )

2) n[ A ∩ ( B ∪ C) ] = n ( A ∩ B ) + n ( A ∩ C) – n( A ∩ B ∩ C)

1) In a survey of 200 students of a school it was found that 120 study mathematics, 90 study physics and 70 study chemistry, 40 study mathematics and physics, 30 study physics and chemistry, 50 study chemistry and mathematics and 20 study none of these subjects. Find the number of students who study all three subjects.

M = Mathematics ; P = Physics and C = Chemistry

n(M) = 120 n(P) = 90 n (C) = 70 n ( M ∩ P) = 40

n ( P ∩ C ) = 30 n ( C ∩ M ) = 50 n ( M ∪ P ∪ C )’ = 20

Now n(M ∪ P ∪ C)’ = n(U) – n(M ∪ P ∪ C)

20 = 200 – n (M ∪ P ∪ C)

Therefore, n(M ∪ P ∪ C) = 200 – 20 = 180

n(M ∪ P ∪ C)

= n(M) + n(P) + n(C) – n(M ∩ P) – n(P ∩ C) – n(C ∩ M) + n(M ∩ P ∩ C)

180 = 120 + 90 + 70 - 40 - 30 - 50 + n(M ∩ P ∩ C)

⇒ n(M ∩ P ∩ C) =180 - 120 - 90 - 70 + 40 + 30 + 50

⇒ n(M ∩ P ∩ C) = 20.

2) In a survey of 60 people, it was found that 25 people read newspaper H, 26 read newspaper T, 26 read newspaper I, 9 read both H and I, 11 read both H and T, 8 read both T and I, 3 read all three newspapers. Find the number of people who read at least one of the newspapers.(problems on intersection of three sets)

H = People who read newspaper H.

I = People who read newspaper I.

T = People who read newspaper T.

n(H) = 25 ; n(T)= 26 ; n(I)= 26 ; n(H ∩ I) = 9

n(H ∩ T) = 11 ; n(T ∩ I) = 8 and n(H ∩ T ∩ I) = 3

n(H ∪T ∪ I )= Number of people who read at least one of the newspapers

= n(H) + n(T) + n(I) – n(H ∩ T) – n(T ∩ I) – n(H ∩ I) + n(H ∩ T ∩ I)

n(H ∪T ∪ I )= 25+ 26 + 26 - 11 - 9 - 8 + 3

= 77 - 28 + 3

= 80 - 28

= 52

Hence the number of people who read at least one of the newspapers is 52.

• Sets

• Representation of Set

• Cardinal Number

• Types of Sets

• Pairs of Sets

• Subset

• Complement of Set

• Union of the Sets

• Intersection of Sets

• Operations on Sets

• De Morgan's Law

• Venn Diagrams

• Venn-diagrams for sets

• Venn-diagrams for different situations

• Problems on Intersection of Two Sets

• Problems on Intersection of Three Sets