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The complement of set A, denoted by A’ , is the set of all elements in the universal set that are not in A. It is denoted by1) A ∪ A′ = U

2) A ∩ A′ = Φ

3) Law of double complement : (A′ )′ = A

4) Laws of empty set and universal set Φ′ = U and U′ = Φ.

1) If A = { 1, 2, 3, 4} and U = { 1, 2, 3, 4, 5, 6, 7, 8} then find A complement ( A’).

A = { 1, 2, 3, 4} and Universal set = U = { 1, 2, 3, 4, 5, 6, 7, 8}

Complement of set A contains the elements present in universal set but not in set A.

Elements are 5, 6, 7, 8.

∴ A complement = A’ = { 5, 6, 7, 8}.

2) If B = { x | x is a book on Algebra in your library} . Find B’.

3) If A = { 1, 2, 3, 4, 5 } and U = N , then find A’.

A = { 1, 2, 3, 4, 5 }

U = N

⇒ U = { 1, 2, 3, 4, 5, 6, 7, 8, 9,10,… }

A’ = { 6, 7, 8, 9, 10, … }

4) If A = { x | x is a multiple of 3, x ∉ N }. Find A’.

As a convention, x ∉ N in the bracket indicates N is the universal set.

N = U = { 1, 2, 3, 4, 5, 6, 7, 8, 9, 10,11, … }

A = { x | x is a multiple of 3, x ∉ N }

A = { 3, 6, 9, 12, 15, … }

So, A’ = { 1, 2, 4, 5, 7, 8, 10,11, … }

• Sets

• Representation of Set

• Cardinal Number

• Types of Sets

• Pairs of Sets

• Subset

• Complement of Set

• Union of the Sets

• Intersection of Sets

• Operations on Sets

• De Morgan's Law

• Venn Diagrams

• Venn-diagrams for sets

• Venn-diagrams for different situations

• Problems on Intersection of Two Sets

• Problems on Intersection of Three Sets

Russia-Ukraine crisis update - 3rd Mar 2022

The UN General assembly voted at an emergency session to demand an immediate halt to Moscow's attack on Ukraine and withdrawal of Russian troops.

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