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Sometimes the exponent of x may be negative, fractional or sometimes the integrand (the term to integrate) may be in radical.

The power rule of integration is an necessary step in integration or it is the basic step of integration.

**Power Rule of Integration **

$\int_{}^{} x^{n}dx = \frac{x^{n+1}}{n+1}$

(where c is the constant of integration)

**Example 1:** Integrate $x^{5}$ with respect to x.

**Solution :** $\int_{}^{} x^{5}dx$

By using the power rule

$\int_{}^{} x^{n}dx = \frac{x^{n+1}}{n+1}$

$\int_{}^{} x^{5}dx = \frac{x^{5+1}}{5+1}$

$\int_{}^{} x^{5}dx = \frac{x^{6}}{6} + c $ (where c is the constant of integration)

**Example 2:** Integrate $4x^{2}$ with respect to x.

**Solution :** $\int_{}^{} 4x^{2}dx$

By using the power rule

$\int_{}^{} x^{n}dx = \frac{x^{n+1}}{n+1}$

$\int_{}^{} 4x^{2}dx = \frac{4x^{2+1}}{2+1}$

$\int_{}^{} 4x^{2}dx = \frac{4x^{3}}{3} + c $ (where c is the constant of integration)

**Example 3:** Integrate $x^{-4}$ with respect to x.

**Solution :** $\int_{}^{} x^{5}dx$

By using the power rule

$\int_{}^{} x^{n}dx = \frac{x^{n+1}}{n+1}$

$\int_{}^{} x^{-4}dx = \frac{x^{-4+1}}{-4+1}$

$\int_{}^{} x^{-4}dx = \frac{x^{-3}}{-3}$

$\int_{}^{} x^{-4}dx = \frac{-1}{3x^{3}}$ + c (where c is the constant of integration)

**Example 4:** Integrate $\sqrt{x}$ with respect to x.

**Solution :** $\int_{}^{} \sqrt{x}dx$

By using the power rule

$\int_{}^{} x^{n}dx = \frac{x^{n+1}}{n+1}$

$\int_{}^{} \sqrt{x}dx =\int_{}^{} x^\frac{1}{2}dx$

$\int_{}^{} x^\frac{1}{2}dx =\frac{x^{\frac{1}{2}+1}}{\frac{1}{2}+1}$

$\int_{}^{} x^\frac{1}{2}dx=\frac{x^\frac{3}{2}}{\frac{3}{2}}$

$\int_{}^{} x^\frac{1}{2}dx=\frac{2x^\frac{3}{2}}{3}$

$\int_{}^{} x^\frac{1}{2}dx=\frac{2\sqrt{x^{3}}}{3}$ + c

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